University of Georgia September 11, 2001 Arch Memorial Collection Finding Aid (UA 01-021)
In a typical finding aid, the Creator Note would encompass a brief overview of the nature of the creating entity and serve to provide a larger context for the Scope and Content Note which is to follow. It is certainly true that this collection is far from typical, and so it is with this Creator Note, which will be of only marginal specificity.
For this collection, that lack of specificity is due in large part to the desire of one of the key creators of this cultural assemblage to remain anonymous. He has chosen to do so for reasons which he has not chosen to share, beyond a note which can be found at UA 01-021:1.9 (transcript) and UA 01-021:4.4 (original). He was only made known to us as he monitored the process of our original recovery of artifacts at the Arch site, and our relocation of some of those artifacts to a display area in the lobby of the Ilah Dunlop Little Memorial Library.
Beyond that observation, it can fairly be stated that this collective artifact is the creation of dozens of individuals from the communities of the University and the city and surrounding areas as well. Some of these individuals have chosen to identify themselves, while others remain anonymous. It is in keeping with the nature of the collection that who the creators are remains a less important issue than what they had to say about how they were coping with the events of September 11th. Ultimately, the sentiments expressed in this assemblage of artifacts establish the presence of a community of people bound together in fear and sadness, and ultimately, hope and resolve.
Scope and Content:
This collection represents the recovery of artifacts from the area surrounding the Arch at the entrance to the University of Georgia at the intersection of College and Broad Street. Organized into fourteen containers, the materials are most readily classified according to physical type.
By volume, the largest series in the assemblage is the assortment of candles and various forms of candleholders. The candles themselves vary in color and size, though white candles are a clear majority by volume. Red and blue candles are substantially less plentiful, with a handful in such different hues as green, purple, gold, orange, and multicolored. Though most candleholders are made of glass, they also come in various metal iterations. There is a small collection of votive candles, both inside of decorated bags, and freestanding, and of devotional candles with religious themes. There was also a hurricane lantern left. Because burning candles were an integral part of the site in its original location, the problem of melted wax, especially with regard to other artifacts, is significant.
The second largest series by volume is the text materials. These textural artifacts range in size from a 2" square drawing to 22" x 28" posters. Some of these materials are framed, and others were simply laid at the memorial site. As mentioned earlier, wax impregnation is an issue for some of these artifacts, as is some loss of material due to in situ burning. While some of these materials are identified by contributor, the great majority of them are anonymous. Of particular interest is the spiral sketchbook (UA 01-021:4.14), a 66-page notebook originally used as a practice sketchbook, which became something of a repository for the collective consciousness of those who visited the site and wished to leave a message.
There were significant floral and other plant materials left at the site. Of those perishable items such as floral and other materials, a representative sampling of whole bouquet and gathered petals was taken and preserved. There were, in addition, a small number of paper and fabric floral offerings that were also preserved.
Other items left included clothing, flags, photographs, and jewelry, including a rosary (UA 01-021:1). After the transfer of the collection, two items were left at the Main Library display site: a Marine Corps emblem and a small red, white, and blue bracelet.
In the collection, these items have been organized in such a way so that the lead items in the collection are key text artifacts and working papers used in recovering and processing the collection, including photographs taken on September 19 and September 21 at the Arch site, both documenting the collection in situ, and its recovery and transfer on September 21st. Of particular interest in these slides are materials which could not be transferred from the original memorial site location, including various chalk inscriptions. In addition, the photos show the original positional relationship of the artifacts in their original context.
Ultimately, the scope and content of the physical components of this collection are less important than the emotional scope and content represented by how those who contributed to this memorial shared their feelings in this time of shared crisis.
(Added 8/29/11): The materials assembled in 2001 have been augmented by two additional accessions, a five-box accession in 2002 (UA 02-034) and a single small box added in 2004 (UA 04-043). They are described in the inventory, though the memorial candle fashioned by University Physical Plant personnel from melted wax recovered at the Arch on 9/21/01 (UA 02-023:4) and a Flight 93 memorial sculpture in glass and wood by University glass artist Robert Ketch are items of particular note.
This collection marks the first time that University Archives personnel have ever been confronted with the task of performing stewardship of a collection prior to actual accessioning of the collection. The issues surrounding care of the materials at the original site at the UGA Arch and subsequent removal/recovery of items from that site were complicated because of the nature of the memorial, and the immediacy of the need which had spurred its creation in the first place.
Though the placement of items at the Arch in the wake of the terrorist attacks on September 11th was not chronicled with precision, it can safely be established that by the morning of Wednesday, September 12th, there were certainly artifacts in place there. By the weekend, the volume of materials at the Arch had increased substantially, and early the following week, the first questions surrounding the care of artifacts surfaced, as midweek rain threatened for the first time those items left at the site. Initial contacts with University administrators Richard Rose and Richard Mullendore led first to a visit to the site by UGA Archives staff with protective plastic sleeves on Wednesday, September 19th. Paper documents were placed in these sleeves, and continued discussions with UGA administrators led to the decision by President Michael Adams to leave the Arch site intact through a planned memorial service on Thursday evening, the 20th of September. It was further decided that the materials would be retired from the Arch site the following day, for reasons of campus safety (flowing wax from the memorial had created a pedestrian hazard) and preservation of the materials themselves. Thus it was that the artifacts were recovered on September 21, 2001 by UGA Archives and Physical Plant personnel, and were transferred to the custody of University Archives. Approximately 4 cubic feet of these artifacts were used in a display which occupied the lobby of the Ilah Dunlap Little Memorial Library from September 21-30, 2001.
There was an additional volume of melted wax recovered from the site by Physical Plant manager Dexter Adams (c. 10 lbs); this wax was to be held until a memorial candle could be crafted from this material. (Added 8/29/11): This addition can be found as a new accession (UA 02-034:4) and is described more fully in the item inventory.
UA 01-021:1 Working Papers/Memorabilia 2001-2002.
- 9 pages of inventory from the collection of artifacts left
- 5 digital photos of the Arch
- 59 sheets of paper (20 red, 19 white, 20 blue)
- 1 paper candle holder
- 1 Summer 2001 edition Mission magazine
- 2 sheets of paper (one yellow, one white) reading "Stop and Think"
- 4 sheets reading "The horrors that…" from the Revolutionary Communist Party
- 9/20/01 Red and Black newspaper clipping reading "Arch memorial to be archived"
- 3 sheets of paper reading "As I am writing this…" (tells of the candles spelling "LOVE")
- 8 sheets of paper reading "the University mourns, the University remembers"
- 2 boxes of slides of the arch (31 in one, 27 in the other)
- 2 compact discs of memorial (one with 40 digital images, the other with 2)
- 2 envelopes:
- 1- one beaded bracelet, one rosary
- 2- one Marine Corps Emblem, one scrap of paper with picture of cat crying, three red, white, and blue ribbons (2 smaller tied in knot; 1 in pin)
- working papers for 9/11/01 Arch memorial (ed. 8/14/02 AG)
UA 01-021:2 Text Materials 2001.
- 1 sheet of paper with wax reading "from the global friends"
- 1 sheet of paper melted by wax to another sheet of paper (reading "Mercy Health Center") melted by wax to a plastic cover with red, white, and blue ribbons melted by wax to it
- 1 page reading "As we enter this new struggle…"
- 1 envelope reading "A prayer for the fallen…"
- 1 page reading "I am sorry that your lives…"
- 1 page reading "to America- I would like to tell a story…"
- 1 photo of the World Trade Center towers taken 5/3/00
- 1 card reading "God Bless America"
- 1 page reading "If you wonder what to pray,…"
- 1 yellow folder with writing on all faces reading "Archive this…"
- 1 page reading "In our sleep…" (RFK quoting Aeschylus)- by Christina Rust
- 1 page with the lyrics of U2's "Sunday, Bloody Sunday"- by Christina Rust
- 1 page covered with cling wrap reading "I just wanted to put…"
- 1 page covered with cling wrap reading "Dear friends, it was…"
- 1 picture of "Oracion a San Martin de Porres"
- 1 page reading "La vie est si difficule!…"
- 1 page reading "may the heads of all countries and races…"
- 1 page reading "God bless our world, not just our nation- ESU"
- 1 page reading "'On the Turning Away'…Pink Floyd"
- 1 page reading "'City of Dreams'… The Talking Heads"
- 1 page reading "United We Stand"- SGA flyer
- 1 page reading "Thou art God…"
- 1 page reading "How can we allow such beautiful minds…"
- 1 The Amazing Spider-man comic book
- 1 page reading "United we stand, you have our thoughts…"
- 1 page reading "don't let the light go out…"
UA 01-021:3 Text Materials 2001.
- "Is the Bible True?" pamphlet
- 1 page reading "the Dalai Lama's letter to the President…"
- 2 matchbooks- one DePalma's and the other Dave and Buster's
- 1 page reading "love and compassion for all…"
- 5 pages reading "to him who conquers…"
- 1 page reading "I am convinced that the universe…"- quotation by MLK
- 1 purple page with blurred blue writing
- 1 photo taken from the 114th floor of the WTC by Stephen Bazzell
- 3 pages reading "I hate that it takes a tragedy…"
- 1 bookmark reading "a prayer of hope…"
- 1 page reading "to the victims, brothers and sisters… God wins this one"
- 1 page reading "on the morning of September 11th…"
- 1 page reading "what is next to come…"- by Kevin Nicholson
- 1 page reading "in light of… 'No Man Is an Island…'"
- 1 page reading "let the fameles of dead…"(sic)
- 2 notecard sized American flags
- 1 card reading "to all those who lost…"
- 1 page reading "Tim- Thank you for trying! Love, Mary Lou"
- 1 page reading "although we can never…"- on back of SGA flyer
- 1 scrap of paper reading "IMAGINE"
- 1 page in plastic cover reading "America We Are Sad!"
- 1 page reading "Blessed be you, Lord… Blessing of St. Francis"
- 1 page reading "and quaint little strip that runs from Union Square…"
- 1 page reading "footsteps- Meredith Shafer…"
- 1 Priority Mail envelope reading "keep it burning show unity"
- 1 page reading "a candle here and there…"
- 4 wax catcher/candle holder- 3 with writing
- 1 page reading "life is full of ups and downs…- Briana."
- 1 page reading "Dear Bin Laden, other cowards…"
- 1 page reading "in the last few days,…"
UA 01-021:4 Text Materials and Memorabilia 2001.
- 1 page reading "give peace a chance… Karen, Leslie, Toni"
- 1 page reading "violence only leads to more violence…"
- 1 picture of "our Lady of Guadalupe…"
- 1 photo of candles, 1 card and 1 page reading "as I am writing this… candles… 'love'…"
- 1 page reading "imagine… nothing to kill…"
- 1 page reading "a beginner's guide to meditation…"
- 1 page reading "our prayers go out…"- by Mali Bucen, Leila Garz, and Callie
- 1 page with various notes reading "May God bless you…"
- 2 notecards reading "look if someone wrote a play…"- by Canio
- 1 unopened envelope "to the victims of 9/11/01"
- 1 page reading "No man is an island…- John Donne"
- 1 page in plastic cover reading "be still and know that I am God…"
- 6 brown paper bags (luminaries) with various writings
- 1 sketch notebook, spiral 8" x 11" 66 pages with entries concerning 9/11
- 1 framed American flag, with card reading "one nation,…" and a ribbon
UA 01-021:5 Miscellaneous Memorabilia/Display 1 2001.
- 1, 5 1/2 in fluted light green candle
- 1, 4 1/2 in misshapen disc-like candle with blue and white pattern
- 1, 3 1/4 in orange candle
- 1, 2 7/8 in square purple candle
- 1, 2 3/4 in square red candle
- 1, 2 5/8 in fluted glass candle holder with ivory candle
- 1, 2 3/8 in horizontally ribbed glass candle holder with purple candle
- 1, 2 in glass candle holder with blue candle
- 1, 1 5/8 in blue candle with red and blue wax melted to it
- 1, 1 1/2 in tin candle holder with white candle
- 1, 1 1/2 in white candle
- 2, 1 1/2 in candles melted together (one red, one blue-green and spherical)
- 1, 1 3/8 in spherical blue candle with white stars
- 1, 3 in paper candle holder/ wax catcher with writing
- 1, XL (2' x 2' 5") white tee shirt with writing "we will never forget September 11 2001"
- 1, 3'x 1' 8 1/2" peach towel
- 6, multi-colored crate paper flowers on white pipe-cleaners
- 1, box of matches (1 1/2;"x 2")
- 1, American flag (10 3/4 in.)
- 2, withered apples (one red, one green)
UA 01-021:6 Miscellaneous Memorabilia/Display 2 2001.
- 1, 6 1/2 in. American Century tin with ivory candle
- 1, 6 in. American flag candle
- 1, 3 3/8 in. tin can with red and white candles
- 1, 3 in. white ceramic candle holder with UGA bulldog on it
- 2, 2 5/8 in. candles (one white, one gold)
- 1, 2 1/2 in. tin lid
- 1, 2 3/8 in. tall slender glass candle holder with white candle
- 1, 4 in. purple hexagon candle
- 3, ca. 2 in. star candle holders with candle (one red, one white, one blue)
- 1, 1 5/8 in. glass bulb candle holder with white candle
- 2, 1 3/8 in. red candles (melted together)
- 1, 1 in. silver candle
- 1, 1 in. blue candle holder with gold stars
- 2, paper candle holders/ wax catchers
- 1, oil lamp with globe (two separate pieces)
- 1, American flag
- 1, box of matches
- 1, black marker
UA 01-021:7 Miscellaneous Memorabilia/Display 3 2001.
- 1, 6 in. blue candle
- 6, 3 in. candles:
- 2 red (of one, only 1/2 remains)
- 1 multi-colored with glitter
- 1 spherical with dragonfly design
- 1 square blue candle
- 1 square purple candle
- 1, 2 7/8 in. green candle
- 1, 2 5/8 in. ribbed blue candle
- 1, 2 5/8 in. glass jar with drawings and pink candle
- 1, 2 3/8 in. square glass candle holder with blue and white candle
- 1, 2 1/4 x 6 5/8 in. orange sun candle
- 2, 2 in. candles (one red, one purple)
- 1, 1 7/8 in. multi-colored hexagon candle
- 1, 1 5/8 in. spherical purple candle
- 1, 1 1/2 in. white candle with an American flag on it
- 2, 1 1/2 in. tin candle holders with white candles
- 1, 1 1/2 in. yellow tin candle holder- crushed
- 3, 1 1/2 in. wax meltings (one part red, one part blue, one part white)
- 1 in spherical candle with blue and white stripes
- 1 large red wax blob with ink pen melted into it
- 4, paper candle holders/wax catchers
- 2 magnolia cones
- 1 rock
UA 01-021:8 Miscellaneous Candle Holders 2001.
- 1, 2 3/4 in. tall plastic container with ivory candle
- 1, 2 1/2 in. glass candle holder with horizontal ribs with blue candle
- 1, 2 1/2 in. tall glass candle holder with ivory candle
- 1, 2 1/2 in. tall red glass candle holder with sunflower design and white candle
- 1, 2 1/2 in. glass candle holder with writing and white candle
- 2, 2 1/2 in. lass jars with white candles
- 1, 2 in. glass candle holder with grid texture and white candle
- 5, 1 7/8 in. glass candle holders-
- 1 with red candle
- 1 with grey candle
- 2 bulb shaped with ivory candles
- 1 bulb shaped with green candle
- 5, 2 3/8 in. glass candle holders with horizontal ribs (one purple, two blue, two white)
- 1, 1 5/8 in. fluted glass candle holder with blue, ivory, and red candle
- 5, 1 1/2 in. fluted glass candle holders (one green, four ivory)
UA 01-021:9 Miscellaneous Candle Holders/Wax 2001.
- 1, 4in coffee can with multi-colored candle
- 1, 3 7/8 in. textured glass candle holder with pink candle
- 5, 2 5/8 in. tall slender glass candle holders-
- 1 "Virgen de Guadalupe"
- 1 "Mater Immaculata Ora Pro Nobis"
- 1 "Rose Guadalupana"
- 1 "Virgen de San Juan"
- 1 "Justo Juez"
- 4, 2 in. glass candle holders with white/ivory candles
- 1, 2 in. glass dodecagon candle holder with white candle
- 1, 2 in plastic cup with white candle
- 1, 2 in. glass Alpha Chi Omega candle holder with red and white candle
- 1, 2 in. glass jar with slanted fluting with white candle
- 1, 2 1/2 in. tin cup with white candle
- 2, 2 1/4 in. square candle holder (one with writing & purple candle, one with red/pink & white candle)
- 2, 2 1/8 x 3 7/8 in. eye-shaped blue candles
- 2, 1 7/8 in. glass candle holders with white candles
- 1, 1 7/8 in. glass candle holder with pink and yellow candle
- 2, 1 7/8 in. plastic candle holders with white candles with red glitter stripes
- 1, 1 7/8 in. plastic candle holder with white candle
- 1, 1 7/8 in. plastic candle holder with red and blue vertical stripes and white candle
- 1, 1 3/4 in. glass flowerpot shaped candle holder with pink candle
- 1, 1 5/8 in. spherical uneven textured glass candle holder with white candle
- 1, 1 5/8 in. fluted glass candle holder with white candle
- 1, 1 5/8 in. bulb-like glass candle holder with white candle
- 1, 1 3/8 in. spherical glass candle holder with red/purple candle
- brown box:
- 3, 1 1/2 in. white candles in tins
- 1, 1 1/2 in. purple candle in tin
- 1, 1 1/2 in. white candle without tin
- 1, 1 1/2 in. ivory candle in yellow tin
- 1, 1 1/2 in. ivory candle in plastic tin
- 2 empty books of matches (one from DePalma's, one from Aaron Bonding Company)
- 1 empty water bottle with multi-colored melted wax
- 3 crushed 1 1/2 in. tin candleholders
- 4 paper candle holders/ wax catchers (3 with candle)
- 1, 2 7/8 in. ivory candle
- multi-colored wax pieces
- grey box 2:
- 1, 1 1/2 in. white candle
- white wax pieces (one with feather attached)
- grey box 2:
- 1, 2 in. square blue candle
- 1, 1 1/2 in. blue candle
- blue and red wax pieces
UA 01-021:10 Candles, White 2001.
- 1, 6 in. white candle
- 3, 4 in. white candles (one is square)
- 2, 3 1/4 in. yellowish/ivory candles (one with strawberries on it)
- 20, 3 in. candles-
- 2 are 1/2 green
- 1 has writing on it
- 7 are ivory
- 1 is hexagon
- rest are plain white
- 13, 2 3/4 in. candles (3 are ivory, the rest are white)
- 9, 2 1/2 in. candles (2 are ivory, 3 are fluted, the rest are plain white)
- 1, 2 in. white candle
- 1, 1 3/4 in. spherical candle
- 5, 1 1/2 in. candles (2 are ivory, the rest are plain white)
- 1, 3/4 in. white candle
- 1, ca. 1 1/2 in. base spherical white candle
- 1, unmeasurable spherical candle with design
UA 01-021:11 Candles, Other (Mixed Colors) 2001.
- 1, 3 in. purple candle
- 2, 2 5/8 in. square purple candles
- 2, 2 3/4 in. fluted purple candles (one has 11/2 in. purple candle melted to it)
- 5, 3 in. blue candles (one has white mixed with the blue)
- 7, 2 3/4 in. blue candles
- 3, 1 5/8 in. spherical blue candles (one with horizontal ribs)
- 1, 1 1/2 in. blue candle
- 1, 3 in. square green candle
- 1, 2 3/4 in. green candle
- 1, 2 in. green candle
- 1, 3 in. red candle
- 1, 2 7/8 in. red candle
- 11, 2 3/4 in. red candles (one with 1 1/2 in. pink candle melted to it)
- 1, 2 3/4 in. square red candle
- 1 2 in. red candle
- 1, 1 1/2 in. red candle
- 1, 4 in. red candle
- 1, 2 7/8 in. pink candle
- 2, 3 in. grey candles
UA 01-021:12 Floral (Oversized) 2001.
- 2, 1'4" bunches (10 ea.) silk roses (one red, one white)
- 6, 2'1" bunches (3 ea.) silk magnolias (two red, two white, two blue)
- 1, 1'9" (2'3" in plastic wrap) bunch (12) real roses (one half red, one half white)
- 1, 1'4" (1'8" in plastic wrap) single real red rose
- 1, 1'7" (1'9" in plastic wrap) bunch (9) real flowers (one red rose and 8 purple daisy-like flowers)
- 1, 2'10" blue ribbon with red bow
- 2 boxes of assorted petal and leaves
UA 01-021:13 Text, Posters, and Other (Oversized) 2001.
- 2, 19 x 12 3/4 in. sheets reading "September 11, 2001 We Mourn, we remember"
- 1, 11 x 13 in. sheet reading "the only answer is peace…"- by Kevin Nicholson
- 1 full size American flag
- 1, 11 x 17 in. newspaper photocopy of article concerning Sandy Bradshaw
- 1, 14 1/4 x 24 in. cardboard sign reading "sit for peace"
- 1, 18x 12 in. board with photo of ruins and 1 page reading "an open letter…"
- 1, 2 1/8 in. glass candle holder with San Martin de Porres on it with and American flag in it
- 5, 21 3/4 x 28 in. posters:
- 1- yellow with Star of David reading "Jews 1944, Afghan 2001?"
- 1- blue with "go USA" with various other notes
- 1- yellow with "[word in Hebrew or Arabic] Peace in the new year"
- 1- pink with "love and prayers to NYC and DC 5762"
- 1- purple with various notes
UA 01-021:14 Broken Artifacts 2001.
- 1, 2 3/4 in. glass candle holder with no candle
- 1, 2 1/2 in. tall glass candle holder with pink candle (in two pieces)
- 2, 2 1/8 in. bulb-like glass candle holders with red candles
- 1, 1 5/8 in. fluted glass candle holder with green candle
- 1, 1 1/2 in. bulb-like glass candle holder with white candle
UA 02-034:1 UGA 9/11 Memorial: Candles and Artifacts 2002
- 1, 4" x 6" color photograph of Arch Memorial, c. 9/13/01 (scorched)
- 1, 2.25" square glass candle holder w/red candle
- 1, 2.5" blue and white striped candle (square)
- 3, white tea candles
- 1, white tea candle w/ American Flag (4" x 6") embedded
- 1, red candle 3" round
- 1, blue candle 3" round
- 1, teal candle 3" round
- 1, small box wax fragments
- 1 CD 9/11 Memorial at Arch Images scanned from slides
UA 02-034:2 Candles and Artifacts (Oversize) 2002
- Originally a single artifact of melted wax with embedded objects, this item broke into ten pieces when recovered. Embedded items include a patriotic license plate (5.5' x 11"), two white round candles, one white and pink striped candle and a small red oblate candle. The majority of the melted wax is purple, and the artifact includes four embedded autumn leaves.
UA 02-034:3 Cast-Silver Sleeve and Candle 2002
- 1, silver candle holder, w/cover, 2" x 2.5"
- 1, cast-silver votive candle screen, cast from the surface of the original Arch Memorial candle, using wax from that candle in a "lost wax" casting process. Created in memory of the victims of September 11 by Barbara Mann and students in her Advanced Jewelry and Metalwork Class at the Lamar Dodd School of Art: Beth Cyr, Roger Bowersox, Amy Conrad, Gretchen Born, Andrew Pallos, and Stephanie Cowan. The openings in the casting represent the WTC towers, the Pentagon, and the field in Pennsylvania where Flight 93 came to rest.
UA 02-034:4 Memorial Candle (Oversized; fabricated by Physical Plant) 2002
- 9/11 Memorial Candle: This candle was fabricated by employees of the University of Georgia Physical Plant from melted wax recovered on 9/21/01 from the original memorial site at the Arch. It is composed of three conjoined candles, each 3" (one red, one white, and one blue). The assemblage rests on a circular silver tray. It was lit during the commemoration exercises at the Main Library on 9/11/02 and again for the memorial activities at the University Chapel on 9/11/03.
UA 02-034:5 "No!" Glass and Wood memorial sculpture for Flight #93, by Robert Ketch 2002
- "No!" A sculpture in glass and wood by Robert Ketch, of the University Georgia glassworks shop. This was Mr. Ketch's salute to the passengers of Flight 93 who acted to bring the plane to the ground in rural Pensylvania, thwarting the plans of the terrorists to take the aircraft into Washington DC. It is composed of a finely modeled glass hand grasping the jet aircraft; this glasswork is set into a wooden base which delineated the continental United States, and is joined to the base at the approximate landing site in Pennsylvania. This sculpture was displayed at 9/11 memorial exercises at UGA in 2002 and 2003.
UA 04-043:1 UGA 9/11 Memorial: Candles and Artifacts 2004
- 3, 2.5" x 2.5" circular glass candle holders (1 ea. red, white, and blue candles
- 1, religious tract: Pocket Bible
- 1, religious tract: "How to know I am going to Heaven!"
- 1, religious tract: "Here's Hope"